What is EA and TEF?
What is EA and TEF?
Esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are rare conditions that develop before birth. They often occur together and affect the development of the esophagus, trachea or both. These conditions can be life-threatening and must be treated shortly after birth.
How common is TEF EA?
Esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is a rare birth defect occurring in 1 in 2,500-4,000 babies where the esophagus fails to properly connect the mouth to the stomach. Babies with this condition must undergo surgical repair, usually shortly after birth.
When is EA TEF diagnosis?
The diagnosis of EA/TEF is confirmed by attempting to pass a nasogastric tube (a tube that runs from the nose to the stomach via the esophagus) down the throat of infants who have require excessive suction of mucus, or are born to mothers with polyhydramnios, or, if earlier signs are missed have difficulty feeding.
What are the 5 types of tracheoesophageal fistula?
Type A = pure esophageal atresia; type B = esophageal atresia with proximal tracheoesophageal fistula; type C = esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula; type D = esophageal atresia with proximal and distal tracheoesophageal fistula; type E = H-type tracheoesophageal fistula without esophageal atresia.
What is EA disease?
An esophageal atresia (EA) and a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are 2 disorders of the digestive system. The condition affects babies. It starts while the mother is pregnant. This makes it a congenital defect. The 2 disorders often happen together.
What is a TEF?
A tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is an abnormal connection between these two tubes. As a result, swallowed liquids or food can be aspirated (inhaled) into your child’s lungs. Feeding into the stomach directly can also lead to reflux and aspiration of stomach acid and food.
Is esophageal atresia life threatening?
Esophageal atresia can be life-threatening, so the baby has to be treated quickly. Doctors perform surgery to connect the esophagus to the stomach in babies with this condition.
What causes EA?
The exact cause of EA is still unknown, but it appears to have some genetic components. Up to half of all babies born with EA have one or more other birth defects, such as: trisomy 13, 18 or 21. other digestive tract problems, such intestinal atresia or imperforate anus.
Is EA TEF genetic?
Causes. Isolated EA/TEF is considered to be a multifactorial condition, which means that multiple gene variations and environmental factors likely contribute to its occurrence. In most cases of isolated EA/TEF, no specific genetic changes or environmental factors have been conclusively determined to be the cause.
What are the types of EA?
EA with Distal TEF EA, with a distal TEF, or a TEF connecting between the lower pouch of the esophagus and the trachea. This is by far the commonest type of EA, with about 89% of EA patients having this type.
How many types of TEF are there?
|Type B||Type 3A||Yes|
|Type C||Type 3B||Yes|
|Type D||Type 3C||Yes|
|Type E (or H-Type)||–||Yes|
Is TEF curable?
For TEF, the primary goal of therapy is closure of fistula between digestive and respiratory fistulas. Most of the fistula cannot be approached surgically. Moreover, medication treatment is unable to cure the disease.
What causes TEF in babies?
How do you feed a baby with esophageal atresia?
Initially, your child can have expressed breast milk which can be given slowly via the NG tube into their stomach. If you are unable to breastfeed, we will provide formula milk. Your child can continue to have NG feeds until the team feels it is time to start feeding by mouth, directly from the breast or bottle.
Can a baby eat with esophageal atresia?
As a result, a baby with this condition is unable to swallow or eat normally. If not diagnosed prenatally, the problem becomes evident soon after birth. A baby with esophageal atresia may need to be fed intravenously until the esophagus can be surgically repaired. Esophageal atresia affects 1 in 4,000 babies.
Is esophageal atresia life-threatening?
Can esophageal atresia be cured?
How we care for esophageal atresia. Although EA can be life-threatening in its most severe forms and could cause long-term nutritional concerns, the majority of children fully recover if it’s detected early. The best treatment for EA is usually surgery to reconnect the two ends of the baby’s esophagus to each other.
What is EA purpose?
Enterprise IT design – the purpose of EA is the greater alignment between IT and business concerns. The main purpose of enterprise architecture is to guide the process of planning and designing the IT/IS capabilities of an enterprise in order to meet desired organizational objectives.
What is EA surgery?
Tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia repair is surgery to repair two birth defects in the esophagus and trachea. The defects usually occur together.