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What is pathognomonic for cardiac tamponade?

What is pathognomonic for cardiac tamponade?

Electrical alternans is pathognomonic of cardiac tamponade and is characterized by alternating levels of ECG voltage of the P wave, QRS complex, and T waves. This is a result of the heart swinging in a large effusion.

What causes post exercise syncope?

Post-exertional syncope frequently occurs when exercise is stopped suddenly and reduction of lower extremity muscle pumping results in less cardiac venous return and cardiac output.

What is effort syncope?

Effort syncope is a well-recognised complication of any pathology which obstructs central blood flow, eg, aortic stenosis. 1 Syncope occurring after effort is also recognised but more unusual. We report here a case with the unique characteristic that convulsions restarted the patient’s heart.

What is the difference between fainting and syncope?

Syncope (SINK-a-pee) is another word for fainting or passing out. Someone is considered to have syncope if they become unconscious and go limp, then soon recover. For most people, syncope occurs once in a great while, if ever, and is not a sign of serious illness.

Is syncope an emergency?

The SFSR ECG criteria predicted 36 of 42 patients with cardiac outcomes, with a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 70%, and a negative predictive value of 99%. Syncope may be the manifestation of an acute life-threatening process but is generally not an emergency.

What are the three classic signs of pericardial tamponade?

The classic signs of cardiac tamponade are known as Beck’s triad, which includes low blood pressure, distension of the jugular veins, and muffled heart sounds.

What is Beck’s triad?

The Beck triad (ie, hypotension; elevated systemic venous pressure, often with jugular venous distention; muffled heart sounds) may occur in affected patients, especially from sudden intrapericardial hemorrhage.

Is syncope life threatening?

In most cases, syncope is not a sign of a life-threatening problem, although some people with syncope do have a serious underlying medical condition. In young adults and children, most cases of syncope are not associated with an underlying medical problem.

What are the 4 classifications of syncope?


  • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
  • The ANS automatically controls many functions of the body, such as breathing, blood pressure, heart rate and bladder control.
  • Vasovagal syncope (also called cardio-neurogenic syncope)
  • Situational syncope.
  • Postural syncope (also called postural hypotension)
  • Neurologic syncope.

Is syncope life-threatening?

How do hospitals treat syncope?

Cardiac arrhythmic syncope is treated with antiarrhythmic drugs or pacemaker placement….In patients brought to the emergency department (ED) with a presumptive diagnosis of syncope, appropriate initial interventions include the following:

  1. IV access.
  2. Oxygen administration.
  3. Cardiac monitoring.

What is the proper treatment for syncope?

Cardiac pacing, implantable cardioverter‐defibrillators, and catheter ablation are the usual treatments of syncope caused by cardiac arrhythmias, depending on the mechanism of syncope.

What is the difference between pericardial tamponade and cardiac tamponade?

Cardiac tamponade — which is sometimes called pericardial tamponade — happens when the pericardium fills with fluid (especially blood). Because the fluid has nowhere to go, your heart runs out of room and can’t expand enough to fill effectively.

How can you tell the difference between cardiac tamponade and pericardial effusion?


  • Pericardial effusion: an accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space between the parietal and visceral pericardium.
  • Cardiac tamponade: a pathophysiological process whereby elevated intrapericardial pressure from a pericardial effusion causes compression of the heart (especially the right ventricle)

What is pulsus paradoxus?

Pulsus paradoxus refers to an exaggerated fall in a patient’s blood pressure during inspiration by greater than 10 mm Hg.

What causes Dressler syndrome?

Experts think Dressler syndrome is caused by the immune system’s response to heart damage. Your body reacts to the injured tissue by sending immune cells and proteins (antibodies) to clean up and repair the affected area. Sometimes this response causes excessive inflammation in the pericardium.

Is syncope a seizure?

Syncope is common in the general population, and its symptoms can mimic seizures, including myoclonic jerks, oral automatism, head-turning, and (rarely) urinary incontinence. Syncope may also trigger a seizure in patients who do not necessarily have epilepsy.

Is syncope a heart condition?

Cardiac syncope is caused by a heart or blood vessel condition that affects blood flow to the brain.

Does syncope cause brain damage?

It has been reported that recurrent syncope episodes can lead to impairment of short-term memory. However, to date, the exact evidence of structural brain damage after syncope has not been reported.

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