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# What is Muskingum equation?

## What is Muskingum equation?

The Muskingum routing model, like the modified Puls model, uses a simple finite difference approximation of the continuity equation: (It−1+It2)−(Ot−1+Ot2)=(St−St−1Δt) Storage in the reach is modeled as the sum of prism storage and wedge storage.

How are Muskingum parameters calculated?

In the absence of flow measurements, Muskingam parameters, K and X, can be estimated from channel characteristics. Vw = I / B (dQ/dy), where B is top width of the water surface and dQ/dy is the slope of the discharge rating curve at a representative channel cross section.

### How is weir coefficient calculated?

The equation recommended by the Bureau of Reclamation in their Water Measurement Manual, for use with a suppressed rectangular weir is: Q = 3.33 B H3/2, where Q is the water flow rate in ft3/sec, B is the length of the weir (and the channel width) in ft, and H is the head over the weir in ft.

What is a standard weir?

Standard Contracted Rectangular Weirs. The fully contracted rectangular weir (figure 7-1) is the most frequent standard weir used in irrigation. To be fully contracted, all overflow plate sides and ends must be located at least a distance of 2h1max (two maximum measurement heads) from the approach flow boundaries.

## What is Muskingum method used for?

The Muskingum routing procedure is used for systems that have Storage – Discharge relationships that are hysteretic. That is, for systems for which the outflow is not a unique function of storage.

What is Muskingum K?

The Muskingum K parameter is equivalent to the travel time through the reach. This parameter can be estimated in multiple ways including: Using known hydrograph data. Comparing flow length to a flood wave velocity. Using regression equations which were developed from observed data in a similar region.

### What is Muskingum Cunge?

The Muskingum-Cunge method is a method of flood routing that improves on the classical Muskingum method (Chow, 1959) by using physical-numerical principles established by Cunge to calculate the routing parameters (Cunge, 1969).

What is the weir equation?

The Weir formula is a formula used in indirect calorimetry, relating metabolic rate to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. According to original source, it says: Metabolic rate (kcal per day) = 1440 (3.9 VO2 + 1.1 VCO2)

## How do you size a weir?

The Length is the bottom width of the weir. The height is measured from the bottom of the weir opening to the top of the water level ponded behind the weir (not the water level right as it leaves the weir).

What is weir coefficient?

The weir coefficient (as shown above in the weir equation) is a lumped parameter that includes the discharge coefficient, the gravitational constant, and constants based on geometric properties.

### What are the methods of flood routing?

Two general divisions or classifications of flood rout- ing methods are hydrologic and hydraulic. Hydrologic methods are generally based on the solution of the conservation of mass equation and a relation of stor- age and discharge in a stream reach or reservoir.

What is Muskingum Cunge method?

The Muskingum-Cunge (M-C) method is an efficient technique often applied to solve flood routing problems. There are two free parameters in the M-C method: the spatial step and the temporal step. The accuracy of the method wholly depends on the Courant number (essentially the ratio of these step sizes).

## Who developed Muskingum method?

PONCE, V. M., YEVJEVICH, V., 1978. Muskingum Cunge Method with Variable Parameters. J. of Hydraulics Div., ASCE, 104(HY12):16631667.

What is Muskingum routing method?

The Muskingum method is a hydrological flow routing model with lumped parameters, which describes the transformation of discharge waves in a river bed using two equations.

### What is index flow in HEC HMS?

In the HEC-HMS 4.3 Users Manual I found the following text: “The index flow should represent the expected maximum flow in the reach”. So could you put in some arbitrary flow for the index flow, run the model, look at the peak flow at the upstream end of the reach, enter that as the index flow and run it again.

How do you calculate flow rate through a weir?

Weirs to Measure Flow It works by raising the water level upstream of the weir, and then forcing the water to spill over. The more water is flowing over the weir, the deeper the water will be upstream of the weir. So measuring flow rate (CFS) can be done by simply measuring the depth of the water upstream.

## How do you measure flow in a weir?

How is weir length calculated?

### What is the basic equation of flood routing?

The equation of continuity used in all hydrologic routing as the primary equation states that the difference between the inflow and outflow rate is equal to the rate of change of storage, i.e. The peak of the outflow hydrograph will be smaller than of the inflow hydrograph.