How do you get alphavirus?
How do you get alphavirus?
Three Alphaviruses currently cause human disease in the United States: the Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Western equine encephalitis (WEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses. All three are transmitted through mosquitoes and can initially present as a flulike illness.
What is the meaning of alphavirus?
Alphavirus is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the Togaviridae family. Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the Baltimore classification of viruses, with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome.
What does alphavirus cause?
The neurotropic alphaviruses and flaviviruses can produce severe destructive central nervous system disease with serious sequelae. Several alphaviruses (chikungunya, Mayaro, and Ross River) cause painful arthritis that persists for weeks or months after the initial febrile illness.
Is chikungunya an alphavirus?
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease first described during an outbreak in southern Tanzania in 1952. It is an RNA virus that belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae.
What are the symptoms of the alphavirus?
What happens if someone gets sick from an alphavirus? Most infections with these viruses produce a fever, headache and muscle pain. Severe headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, coma and possibly even death can occur.
Is rubella an alphavirus?
Rubella Virus. Rubella virus is the sole member of the genus Rubivirus and belongs to the Togaviridae family together with alphaviruses (see subsequent text).
How is alphavirus treated?
There is no specific treatment or established cure for alphaviruses. Supportive care (intravenous fluids, medicine to control fever and pain) is the standard treatment.
Which of the following are common clinical symptom of alphavirus infection?
Alphavirus infections are characterized by the triad of fever, arthralgia and rash. These clinical features occur abruptly after an incubation period of 2–10 days. In the early phase, fever, muscle pains, malaise and headache dominate the clinical picture.
Where is Flavivirus found?
The Flaviviridae are a family of positive, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses. They are found in arthropods, (primarily ticks and mosquitoes), and can occasionally infect humans. Members of this family belong to a single genus, Flavivirus, and cause widespread morbidity and mortality throughout the world.
Which of the following are common clinical symptoms of alphavirus infection?
How is arboviruses diagnosed?
The presence of IgM in serum or CSF is the primary laboratory criteria by which clinicians diagnose acute or recent arboviral infection. IgM for WNV appears a median of 4 to 10 days after the onset of symptoms (37) and typically lasts for 1 to 3 months.
What happens if rubella IgG is positive?
Positive: A positive rubella IgG test result is good—it means that you are immune to rubella and cannot get the infection. This is the most common rubella test done.
How is rubeola diagnosis?
How is measles diagnosed? A doctor will suspect measles based on the common symptoms including fever and rash, and especially if the patient has recently traveled internationally or was exposed to someone with a fever and a rash. Laboratory blood and tissue tests (from a throat or nose swab) can confirm the diagnosis.
How do you identify Flavivirus?
Flavivirus-associated human diseases can be reliably confirmed by the detection of viral nucleic acids using conventional reverse transcription (RT)-PCR or real-time RT-qPCR. The molecular diagnosis of flavivirus infection is dependent on the presence of viral nucleic acids in the sampled biological material.
How do you test for mosquito-borne disease?
Diagnostic methods: Serological tests, including ELISA to confirm IgM and IgG anti-chikungunya antibodies. Samples collected within the first week of symptom onset should be tested with serological (ELISA) and virological (RT-PCR) methods.
Is a positive rubella test good?
A positive rubella IgG test result is good—it means that you are immune to rubella and cannot get the infection. This is the most common rubella test done. Negative: This means you are not immune to rubella.
What if rubella IgG is high in pregnancy?
Background: Infection of mothers with Rubella virus during pregnancy can be serious; if the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy she is likely to have miscarriage, stillbirth, or baby with congenital rubella syndrome.