What is El Nino and La Nina in simple terms?
What is El Nino and La Nina in simple terms?
El Niño refers to the above-average sea-surface temperatures that periodically develop across the east-central equatorial Pacific. It represents the warm phase of the ENSO cycle. La Niña refers to the periodic cooling of sea-surface temperatures across the east-central equatorial Pacific.
What causes El Nino and La Nina phenomena?
El Niño and La Niña result from interaction between the surface of the ocean and the atmosphere in the tropical Pacific. Changes in the ocean impact the atmosphere and climate patterns around the globe. In turn, changes in the atmosphere impact the ocean temperatures and currents.
What happens during La Niña phenomenon?
During La Niña events, strong winds push warm water towards Asia and upwelling increases of the west coast of the Americas. This means that cold, nutrient-rich water rises to the surface in the Pacific, which pushes the jet stream northward.
How El Nino and La Nina affect climate?
El Niño and La Niña are the warm and cool phases of a recurring climate pattern across the tropical Pacific—the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, or “ENSO” for short. The pattern shifts back and forth irregularly every two to seven years, and each phase triggers predictable disruptions of temperature, precipitation.
Is La Niña warm or cold?
La Nina refers to the periodic cooling of ocean surface temperatures in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific. Typically, La Nina events occur every 3 to 5 years or so, but on occasion can occur over successive years. La Nina represents the cool phase of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle.
Is La Niña wet or dry?
La Niña is a climate pattern that usually delivers more dry days across the southern third of the US. Its drought-producing effects are especially pronounced in the south-west, but the phenomenon will also contribute to higher risks of hurricanes as the winds help the storms build. .
Is La Niña caused by global warming?
No. El Niño events are not caused by climate change – they are a natural reoccurring phenomenon that have been occurring for thousands of years.
Which condition happens during the La Niña?
During La Niña conditions, the easterly trade winds near the equator get even stronger than they usually are. Stronger winds push surface water into the western Pacific. Meanwhile, cool water from deeper in the ocean rises up in the eastern Pacific.
How can El Nino and La Nina cause extreme weather?
During El Niño, the jet stream is oriented from west to east across the southern portion of the United States. Thus, this region becomes more susceptible to severe weather outbreaks during the winter. Conversely, during La Niña, the jet stream and severe weather are likely to be farther north.
Is El Niño wet or dry?
Weather typically differs markedly from north to south during an El Niño event (wet in south, dry in north) but also usually varies greatly within one region from event to event.
Is La Nina warm or cold?
Are we in a La Nina or El Niño 2021?
Based on all the available data, an official La Nina watch is still in effect, released by the NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center: “La Niña is likely to continue into the Northern Hemisphere spring (77% chance during March-May 2022) and then transition to ENSO-neutral (56% chance during May-July 2022).
Are we in El Niño or La Niña 2021?
La Niña continues as the Northern Hemisphere heads into winter, and forecasters are confident that it will hang around through the rest of the winter. This La Niña, the second in two years, will likely transition to ENSO-neutral sometime in the spring.
What type of weather is La Niña?
La Niña is a weather pattern that occurs in the Pacific Ocean. In this pattern, strong winds blow warm water at the ocean’s surface from South America to Indonesia. As the warm water moves west, cold water from the deep rises to the surface near the coast of South America.
What is the difference between El Niño and La Nino?
El Niño events are associated with a warming of the central and eastern tropical Pacific, while La Niña events are the reverse, with a sustained cooling of these same areas. These changes in the Pacific Ocean and its overlying atmosphere occur in a cycle known as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
Is El Niño warm or cold?
El Nino is the “warm phase” of a larger phenomenon called the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). La Nina, the “cool phase” of ENSO, is a pattern that describes the unusual cooling of the region’s surface waters.
Is this year El Niño or La Niña 2022?
Most current climate model predictions expect the negative Niño-3.4 anomaly will weaken over the summer and strengthen in the fall. The range of forecasts for departures from average temperatures in the Niño-3.4 region of the tropical Pacific in 2022 from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME).
Is it El Niño or La Niña 2022?
Cooler-than-average ocean temperatures indicated the presence of La Niña as of mid-May 2022. A typical La Niña will develop in late summer or fall, peak in the winter, then weaken in spring.
Is El Nina hot or cold?
La Niña is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific, compared to El Niño, which is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.
What is the difference between El Nino and La Nina Short answer?
La Nina, the “cool phase” of ENSO, is a pattern that describes the unusual cooling of the tropical eastern Pacific. La Nina events may last between one and three years, unlike El Nino, which usually lasts no more than a year. Both phenomena tend to peak during the Northern Hemisphere winter.